By Jian-Liang Lin, Hong-Sen Yan
This booklet provides a scientific layout method for deciphering the inner constitution of the Antikythera mechanism, an astronomical machine from historic Greece. The historic history, surviving facts and reconstructions of the mechanism are brought, and the historic improvement of astronomical achievements and numerous astronomical tools are investigated. Pursuing an process according to the conceptual layout of recent mechanisms and considering the factors of technological know-how and know-how on the time, all possible designs of the six lost/incomplete/unclear subsystems are synthesized as illustrated examples, and forty eight possible designs of the whole inside constitution are awarded. This method offers not just a logical device for employing smooth mechanical engineering wisdom to the reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism, but in addition an cutting edge learn course for picking out the unique buildings of the mechanism sooner or later. briefly, the booklet deals necessary new insights for all readers who're attracted to the Antikythera mechanism.
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Extra info for Decoding the Mechanisms of Antikythera Astronomical Device
Once the climate change of area is not obvious, the time cycle is not defined. Therefore, the revolutions of phenomenon of celestial bodies are regarded as the most popular and steady units of time. According to this requirement, the historical records about the astronomical observations existed in many ancient civilizations. Also, it is related to the developments of mechanical instruments for astronomical observation. Telescope is the representative work of observational astronomy. The first one was made in Holland around 1608 [5, 6].
A Front view. 5 Front plate of the Antikythera device Zodiac Egyptian calendar The inner scale is fixed and divided into 360 divisions in 30 groups. The groups are marked with names of the zodiac signs in Greece. The outer scale is movable and divided into 365 parts corresponding to the Egyptian calendar which has 12 months with 30 days each and a group of 5 extra days at the end of the year. A comparison with the true length of the year requires correcting the effect of the extra quarter day by turning the scale forward 1 day every 4 years.
The fixed case still had a hole. And, the new moon appeared when the hole of Moon disk coincided with the hole of the fixed case. Furthermore, a Moon disk could be replaced by a Moon ball. This manner was rare, but existed in ancient astronomical apparatus. For the function to demonstrate the motions of celestial bodies, the study of ancient astronomical apparatus concludes two different designs. One design is the ordinary gear train used in the Islamic astrolabe with calendrical gearing, the Byzantine sundial with calendrical gearing, the Persian astrolabe with calendrical gearing, the French Gothic astrolabe, and the orrery.