Urban Planning Development

Cultures, Communities, Identities: Cultural Strategies for by Marjorie Mayo

By Marjorie Mayo

Cultures, groups, Identities explores quite a lot of cultural innovations to advertise participation and empowerment in either First and 3rd international settings. This e-book begins by way of reading modern debates on cultures, groups, and identities, within the context of globalization. This units the framework for the dialogue of cultural techniques to strive against social exclusion and to advertise neighborhood participation in transformative agendas for neighborhood monetary and social improvement. the ultimate bankruptcy specializes in using cultural concepts and new applied sciences throughout nationwide limitations, on the international point.

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Ethnicity and ethnic antagonism, he has argued, are very ancient. But contemporary concerns with the politics of identity and difference have taken particular forms. Both individual and collective identities became more problematic with the development of modern capitalist societies, with their increasing emphasis on the individual and individual choice within the nation state (itself a contested and problematic notion, a point which is explored in more detail in Chapter 6). Whilst these changes may have represented progress, in terms of development from feudal societies, there was nothing inherently progressive for the future, he argued.

Parallel arguments have been applied to women in the community. Women, Fiona Williams has argued, may be trapped in the locality of their communities, place-bound and tied by a range of factors arising from their situations as women, including the ties arising from their domestic and family responsibilities (Williams, 1989). Notions of communities of locality may be based upon male constructs of a romanticised past dominated by male haunts and activities, such as the pub and football. As Massey has pointed out, a ‘woman’s view would most likely be very different’ (Massey, 1994, p.

This base – the relations of production – determined the superstructure, including the spheres of culture, but only in the last instance, rather than crudely or deterministically. Ideology was important in its own right, a site of class struggle, rather than simply reflecting the material base (Althusser, 1984). Without going into detail, for the purposes of this account, what needs to be emphasised here is that Althusser and his fellow structuralists were grappling with similar problems to those which Gramsci had addressed, how to move forward in relation to questions of ideology and culture and the role of cultural strategies and struggles dealing with the ghosts of Stalinism (Davies, 1995).

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