By R.J.W. Evans, T.V. Thomas
This ebook bargains with a turning-point in eu background: the dramatic fight among the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and among princely rulers and landed nobles in 16th and seventeenth-century primary and japanese Europe. It brings jointly the result of the most recent learn by way of major students from North the United States and Europe and it throws new gentle at the victory of the Church and the rulers over Protestantism and the the Aristocracy which had such profound long term outcomes.
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Extra info for Crown, Church and Estates: Central European Politics in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
We must also remember that the imperial diet (Reichstag), like the diets of the hereditary lands, had to deal with the Austrian ruler in his capacity as emperor, whereas the Reichstag was superior to the estates in the Empire proper. Further, this discussion will not be able to ignore the emperor's court as an adversary of the estates in the Habsburg lands, both inside and outside the Empire, as well as of the imperial diet. Finally, we will look at the dynamic elements of the process by which the system of estates changed, taking account of the fact that influences proceeded in both directions.
Carsten drew attention to the role of the German diets in 1954, thus initiating a boom in research on the estates. Since then, a long debate has ensued. 8 Attempts to write a Whig history of Germany have not been successful, but the old yardstick which measured the achievements of the estates in terms of the creation of a modern state has been thoroughly revised. Older views of the development from estates to modern parliament thus also need to be differentiated. Above all, doubt has been cast upon the traditional dualistic model of prince versus estates, and more attention has been paid to the function of the estates within the total structure of the territory, which has opened up the way for more down-to-earth assessments.
4 Meanwhile the officials of the country, members of the estates headed by the Grand Burgrave ( Oberstburggraf, nejvyssf purkrabf) or a royal stadholder, ruled in Bohemia, intending as 'regents of the country' (Landesregenten) to establish a form of noble oligarchy. 5 Certainly it is the structural weakness of the Bohemian monarchy which explains the J agiellonian disinterest in Bohemia and the king's contemporary failure. 6 It had lost a majority of the old royal domain by usurpation and mortgaging during and after the Hussite revolution.