Science For Kids

Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, 2013 Edition by Princeton Review

By Princeton Review

If you want to comprehend it, it’s during this book. Cracking the AP Chemistry, 2013 variation includes:

   • 2 full-length perform checks with targeted explanations
   • Thorough topic experiences of all subject matters, together with atomic constitution, thermodynamics, the periodic desk, primary legislation, natural chemistry, molecular binding, and key equations, legislation & formulas
   • Helpful tables, charts, and diagrams
   • Detailed recommendation on tips to write a high-scoring essay
   • Updated techniques which replicate the AP try scoring switch

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Extra resources for Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, 2013 Edition

Sample text

The development committee decides what should be covered in an AP course and how it should be covered on the AP test. The AP Chemistry development committee is composed of three high school chemistry teachers, three college professors who teach general chemistry, and an additional college professor who chairs the group. Each member of the development committee serves a three-year term. The test is administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS)—the same folks who bring you the SAT. ETS also plays a role in developing the test.

Thanks also to Robbie Korin, James Karb, and Chris Volpe for their suggestions and corrections. Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Acknowledgments Introduction 1 ORIENTATION What Is the AP Program? What Is the AP Chemistry Exam? Cracking the Multiple-Choice Section • The Basics • Pacing • Guessing • About Calculators Cracking the Free-Response Section • Part A—Problems • Cracking the Problems • Part B—Reactions and Essays • Cracking the Essays About the Topics Covered on the Test 2 PREPARING FOR THE AP CHEMISTRY EXAM The Months Before the Test The Week Before the Test The Day of the Test 3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE The Periodic Table Electrons • Quantum Numbers • The Aufbau Principle • The Pauli Exclusion Principle • Quantum Numbers and the Periodic Table • Hund’s Rule • Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism • Electrons and Energy • Names and Theories Periodic Trends • Atomic Radius • Ionization Energy • Electron Affinity • Electronegativity Chapter 3 Questions Chapter 3 Answers and Explanations 4 BONDING Coulomb’s Law Bonds • Ionic Bonds • Covalent Bonds • Lewis Dot Structures • Molecular Geometry Bonds Between Molecules—Attractive Forces in Solids and Liquids • Network (Covalent) Bonds • Metallic Bonds • Van der Waals Forces • Hydrogen Bonds Chapter 4 Questions Chapter 4 Answers and Explanations 5 STOICHIOMETRY AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Some Math • Significant Figures • Logarithms Moles • Moles and Molecules • Moles and Grams • Moles and Gases • Moles and Solutions • Percent Composition • Empirical and Molecular Formulas Chemical Equations • Balancing Chemical Equations • Chemical Equations and Calculations Chapter 5 Questions Chapter 5 Answers and Explanations 6 GASES Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) Kinetic Molecular Theory The Ideal Gas Equation Dalton’s Law Graham’s Law Van der Waals Equation Density Chapter 6 Questions Chapter 6 Answers and Explanations 7 PHASE CHANGES The Phase Diagram Phase Changes • Naming the Phase Changes • Heat of Fusion • Heat of Vaporization The Phase Diagram for Water The Heating Curve Chapter 7 Questions Chapter 7 Answers and Explanations 8 THERMODYNAMICS The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics State Functions Standard State Conditions Enthalpy • Enthalpy Change, ∆H • Heat of Formation, ∆H°f • Bond Energy • Hess’s Law • Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Entropy Gibbs Free Energy • Free Energy Change, ∆ • ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S • ∆G and ∆G° • Standard Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant Energy Diagrams • Exothermic and Endothermic Energy Diagrams • Catalysts and Energy Diagrams Chapter 8 Questions Chapter 8 Answers and Explanations 9 SOLUTIONS Concentration Measurements • Molarity • Molality • Mole Fraction Solutes and Solvents Colligative Properties • Boiling-Point Elevation • Freezing-Point Depression • Vapor Pressure Lowering (Raoult’s Law) • Osmotic Pressure Density Solubility • Solubility Product (Ksp) • The Common Ion Effect • Solubility Rules • Solubility of Gases Chapter 9 Questions Chapter 9 Answers and Explanations 10 EQUILIBRIUM The Equilibrium Constant, Keq Keq and Gases The Reaction Quotient, Q Keq and Multistep Processes Le Châtelier’s Law • Concentration • Volume • Temperature • Pressure Chapter 10 Questions Chapter 10 Answers and Explanations 11 ACIDS AND BASES Definitions • Arrhenius • Brønsted-Lowry • Lewis pH Weak Acids Strong Acids Kw Acid and Base Salts Buffers Polyprotic Acids and Amphoteric Substances Anhydrides Titration Chapter 11 Questions Chapter 11 Answers and Explanations 12 KINETICS The Rate Law Using Initial Concentrations The Rate Law Using Concentration and Time • First-Order Rate Laws • Second-Order Rate Laws • Zero-Order Rate Laws Collision Theory Reaction Mechanisms Catalysts Kinetics and Equilibrium Chapter 12 Questions Chapter 12 Answers and Explanations 13 OXIDATION-REDUCTION AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY Oxidation States Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reduction Potentials Voltage and Spontaneity Voltage and Equilibrium Galvanic Cells Electrolytic Cells Chapter 13 Questions Chapter 13 Answers and Explanations 14 NUCLEAR DECAY Types of Nuclear Decay • Alpha Emission (α) • Beta Emission (β) • Positron Emission (β) • Electron Capture (e) • Gamma Rays (γ) Nuclear Stability Half-Life Mass Defect and Binding Energy Chapter 14 Questions Chapter 14 Answers and Explanations 15 LABORATORY Recommended Experiments Safety Accuracy Lab Procedures • Methods of Separation • Measuring Concentration Identifying Chemicals in Solution • Precipitation • Conduction • Flame Tests • Acid-Base Reaction • Colored Solutions Laboratory Equipment Chapter 15 Questions Chapter 15 Answers and Explanations 16 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Hydrocarbons • Alkanes • Alkenes • Alkynes • Hydrocarbon Rings Some Functional Groups • Alcohols • Organic Acids • Halides • Amines • Aldehydes • Ketones • Ethers • Esters Isomers Organic Reactions Chapter 16 Questions Chapter 16 Answers and Explanations 17 DESCRIPTIVE CHEMISTRY The Basics Scoring Cracking the Descriptive Chemistry Section 18 THE PRINCETON REVIEW AP CHEMISTRY PRACTICE EXAM 1 19 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS FOR PRACTICE EXAM 1 20 THE PRINCETON REVIEW AP CHEMISTRY PRACTICE EXAM 2 21 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS FOR PRACTICE EXAM 2 Index About the Author Introduction WHAT IS THE PRINCETON REVIEW?

I’d also like to thank Eric Payne, whose rigorous attention to detail helped me to separate chemistry from fantasy. I’d like to thank Tom Meltzer for his advice and Libby O’Connor for her patience. I’d also like to thank The Princeton Review’s editorial and production crew. Thanks also to Robbie Korin, James Karb, and Chris Volpe for their suggestions and corrections. Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Acknowledgments Introduction 1 ORIENTATION What Is the AP Program? What Is the AP Chemistry Exam?

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