By Eva Feder Kittay, Licia Carlson
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Additional info for Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy (Metaphilosophy Series in Philosophy)
This deﬁnition of ID—an IQ less than 70—is the one used by authors of most studies of the seven speciﬁc medical conditions. S. schoolage population. 36 JEFFREY P. BROSCO 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1912 1920 1942 1952 1956 1961 1966 1973 1993 FIGURE 5. Cross-sectional estimates of the prevalence of ID in the United States (per 1,000 persons) longitudinal studies of ID prevalence until recently, and even these studies differ on the exactly how many people meet criteria for ID (Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota 2000; Larson et al.
Mp4. 20 LICIA CARLSON AND EVA FEDER KITTAY fall short of the traditional views adopted by Singer and McMahan. In making her case for the central role of the capacity to care as a sufﬁcient condition for full moral standing, Jaworska echoes some of the arguments and conceptions of agency we ﬁnd in the essays by Shoemaker, Linde mann, and Jennings. But unlike those essays (all of which accept the full moral standing of people with cognitive disabilities), which depend on human examples, and unlike the invocation of actual nonhuman animals deployed by Singer or the cognitively enhanced conjured up by McMahan (both of whom argue against the full moral standing of many cognitively disabled individuals), Jaworska’s essay invokes innovative scenarios involving various imaginary nonhuman agents modeled on nonstandard forms of human agency.
Silvers, Anita. 1995. ’’ Hypatia 10, no. 1:30–55. ———. 1996. ’’ Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21:209–24. INTRODUCTION 25 ———. 1999. ’’ In Embodying Bioethics, edited by Anne Donchin and Laura Purdy, 177–202. : Rowman and Littleﬁeld. Silvers, Anita, David Wasserman, and Mary B. Mahowald. 1998. Dis ability, Difference, Discrimination: Perspectives on Justice in Bioethics and Public Policy. : Rowman and Littleﬁeld. Singer, Peter, ed. 1993. A Companion to Ethics. : Blackwell. ———. 1995. Animal Liberation.