By Christopher Boone, Ali Modarres
For the 1st time in heritage, greater than part the world's humans reside in towns, a unprecedented swap in conditions for humans and the normal surroundings. Coming to phrases with an city global calls for an knowing of the complicated relationships among towns and common ecosystems. "City" and the "Environment" aren't jointly specific phrases. dealing with city stipulations within the twenty first century calls for an realizing of the interplay among social, cultural, fiscal, political, and environmental components. Christopher Boone and Ali Modarres discover town, its setting, and the position people play in shaping the that means and of either. In doing so, they interact the reader in an exploratory discourse at the city setting.
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Extra resources for City and Environment
Lesnikowski (1982, 18) suggests that “[t]he saga of the ‘pagan’ Renaissance begins with the moment when Poggio Bracciolini found some ancient texts in the Swiss monastery of Saint Gall while attending the council of Constance. Among them was the famous treatise by Vitruvius,” the Roman urban theorist whose treatises on urban design influenced the Roman elites and their urban agenda for the empire. It is interesting that architecture, urban design, and art became the venue for conceptualizing and reconstructing an imagined golden age of the classics.
In fact, Vitruvius’s comments suggest that the Romans were concerned about the basic health of urban residents and sought protection against harsh climates. Once the basic transportation backbone was fully designed, religious buildings were sited. Vitruvius provided a list of religious and public buildings, ranked by their order of importance. The ideal Roman city followed a formulaic sequence. The spatial structure of a planned Roman city was much the same as that of a Greek city. The cardinal direction of the city was defined by its major transportation routes; the residential and commercial sections were arranged along these routes.
If Versailles and other icons of the baroque period trigger images of class conflict, we must remember that the underlying philosophy of urban design during this period was rationalism, rooted in the optimism 9Toward the end of the Roman Empire, similar patterns of building villas in aesthetically pleasing settings, away from Rome, also occurred. However, the idea of having a home in the countryside was largely abandoned until this period. 30 CHAPTER ONE of the new scientific age of reason, discovery, and prosperity.