Diagnostic Imaging

Cerebral Visual Disturbance in Infantile Encephalopathy by O. Nieuwenhuizen

By O. Nieuwenhuizen

The analysis and therapy of youngsters being affected by childish encephalopathy is a part of day-by-day childneurological perform. during the last years, a large amount of wisdom has been accumul­ ated on motor and psychological handicaps, orthopaedic corrections, rehabilitation, measurements, and so forth. much less realization has, even though, been paid to the perceptual deficits in childrens being affected by childish encephalopathy, e.g. visible and listening to loss. it truly is most probably that such deficits could have a unfavorable influence on improvement. As those kids are usually additionally mentally retarded, perceptual deficits might be tricky to diagnose. increasing the on hand wisdom on those deficits may perhaps facilitate their (early) analysis. evaluation of prognosis permits adaption of developmental stimulation which can final give a contribution to a better developmental point. This examine bargains with the visible difficulties of kids struggling with childish encephalopathy. specifically, a research has been made up of visible impairment as a result of disorder of the primary visible method (from optic chiasm to striate cortex). The childneurological facets of this handicap have been investigated intimately in coopera­ tion with Prof. Dr. J. Willemse (Department of Childneurology, collage health center Utrecht, The Netherlands), leading to an identifiable scientific photograph. the appliance of neuro-imaging thoughts (computer tomography, magazine­ netic resonance imaging) permits the evaluation of attribute morphological abnormalities of the important visible procedure.

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Example text

Abnormalities of the white matter, located under the visual cortex. 'C': abnormalities of the visual cortex. When the abbreviations mentioned above were used without further indication( s), they were present bilaterally to an equal extent. If an asymmetry of the abnormalities was found, the following indications were added: 'L': only found on the left side. 'R': only found on the right side. 'L> R': bilaterally present but more prominent on the left side. , but more prominent on the right side.

3. Does application of neuro-imaging techniques (computer tomography of the brain, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain) reveal findings characteristic for CVD as part of infantile encephalopathy? 31 4. Does neurophysiological examination (visually evoked potentials, optokinetic nystagmography) reveal findings characteristic for CVD as part of infantile encephalopathy? In the following chapters, the methods of examination and the composition of the patient group are first described. Then, the results of the various examination techniques are presented.

32-256). Basically, stimuli are simply applied until a clear YEP is obtained. /sec) is also variable. Various types of stimuli can be used to elicit VEPs. These can be subdivided into: a) flash and b) pattern stimuli. The VEPs so induced are called (I) flash VEPs (FVEPs) and (II) pattern VEPs (PVEPs), respectively. I. FVEPs Flash VEPs are brought about by diffuse, stroboscopic flashes of light. A polyphasic waveform appears approximately 20--30 ms after the flash. Ciganek (1961) described the following parts of this waveform (see Fig.

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