Oracle

Beginning Oracle SQL for Oracle Database 12c by Lex deHaan,

By Lex deHaan,

Starting Oracle SQL is your creation to the interactive question instruments and particular dialect of SQL used with Oracle Database. those instruments comprise SQL*Plus and SQL Developer. SQL*Plus is the only software any Oracle developer or database administrator can constantly anticipate, and it really is wide-spread in growing scripts to automate regimen projects. SQL Developer is a robust, graphical surroundings for constructing and debugging queries. Oracles is in all probability the main important dialect of SQL from a profession perspective. Oracles database engine is commonplace in company environments world wide. it's also present in many govt purposes. Oracle SQL implements many positive factors no longer present in competing items. No developer or DBA operating with Oracle can have enough money to be with out wisdom of those positive aspects and the way they paintings, as a result functionality and expressiveness they create to the desk. Written in an easygoing and example-based sort, starting Oracle SQL is the booklet that may get you all started down the trail to effectively writing SQL statements and getting effects from Oracle Database. Takes an example-based technique, with transparent and authoritative reasons Introduces either SQL and the question instruments used to execute SQL statements exhibits how you can create tables, populate them with info, after which question that info to generate enterprise effects What you’ll research Create database tables and outline their relationships. upload info on your tables. Then switch and delete that facts. Write database queries that generate exact effects. stay away from universal traps and pitfalls in writing SQL queries, specially from nulls. achieve the functionality and expressiveness of analytic and window capabilities. utilize Oracle Databases help for item varieties. Write recursive queries to question hierarchical info. Who this e-book is for starting Oracle SQL is aimed toward builders and database directors who needs to write SQL statements to execute opposed to an Oracle database. No previous wisdom of SQL is thought. desk of Contents 1. Relational Database platforms and Oracle 2. creation to SQL and SQL*Plus, and SQL Developer three. facts Definition, half I four. Retrieval: the fundamentals five. Retrieval: services 6. info Manipulation 7. info Definition, half II eight. Retrieval: Joins and Grouping nine. Retrieval: complex gains 10. perspectives eleven. Automating 12. Object-Relational beneficial properties thirteen. Appendix A – Case Tables 14. Appendix B – workout recommendations

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Chapter 1 introduced tables, columns, and constraints; other database object types (such as views, indexes, synonyms, and sequences) will be introduced in later chapters. Almost all SQL data definition commands start with one of the following three keywords: • CREATE, to create a new database object • ALTER, to change an aspect of the structure of an existing database object • DROP, to drop (remove) a database object For example, with the CREATE VIEW command, you can create views. With the ALTER TABLE command, you can change the structure of a table (for example by adding, renaming, or dropping a column).

SQL supports two types of variables: • Column name variables: The name of a column stays the same, but its value typically varies from row to row while scanning a table. • System variables: These have nothing to do with tables; nevertheless, they can play an important role in SQL. They are commonly referred to as pseudo columns. See Table 2-4 for some examples of Oracle system variables. Table 2-4. Examples of Oracle System Variables (Pseudo Columns) Variable Description SYSDATE The current system date in the database CURRENT_DATE The current date at the client application side SYSTIMESTAMP The system date and exact time, with time zone information LOCALTIMESTAMP The system date and exact time, with time zone information, at the client application side USER The name used to connect to the database The difference between dates (and timestamps) at the database side and those at the client application side can be relevant if you are connected over a network connection with a database in a remote location.

Querying EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables When running scripts, the output is appended to the Script Output window. To clear the window so that only new output is displayed, click on the Clear button (the picture of the pencil eraser). ■■Note Not all supported SQL*Plus output formatting commands are properly interpreted for Run Script. For example, the COLUMN command does not change the column headings, but SET FEEDBACK OFF works as expected. Saving Commands to a Script After taking time to create a complex statement, it is wise to save that command to a script that you can run later.

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