By Lévinas, Emmanuel; Marcel, Gabriel; Lévinas, Emmanuel; Marcel, Gabriel; Treanor, Brian
Another is really different, yet no different is completely other.This is the declare that points of Alterity defends. taking on the query of otherness that so fascinates modern continental philosophy, this publication asks what it capability for anything or anyone to be except the self. Levinas and people stimulated through him indicate that the philosophical culture of the West has ordinarily favourite the self on the fee of the opposite. this kind of self-centered point of view by no means encounters the opposite qua different, although. In reaction, postmodern proposal insists at the absolute otherness of the opposite, epitomized by way of the deconstructive declare any other is absolutely other.But absolute otherness generates difficulties and aporias of its personal. This has led a few thinkers to reevaluate the suggestion of relative otherness in mild of the postmodern critique, arguing for a chiastic account that does justice to either the alterity and the similitude of the opposite. those latter positions-absolute otherness and a rehabilitated account of relative otherness-are the most contenders within the modern debate.The philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Gabriel Marcel give you the aspect of embarkation for coming to appreciate the 2 positions in this query. Levinas and Marcel have been contemporaries whose philosophies express remarkably related main issue for the opposite yet however stay essentially incompatible. hence, those thinkers supply a notable representation of either the proximity of and the unbridgeable hole among bills of otherness.Aspects of Alterity delves into this debate, first so as comprehend the problems at stake in those positions and moment to figure out which description greater debts for the event of encountering the other.After an intensive evaluation and critique of otherness in Levinas's and Marcel's paintings, together with a dialogue of the connection of moral alterity to theological assumptions, features of Alterity lines the transmission and improvement of those conceptions of otherness. Levinas's model of otherness might be obvious within the paintings of Jacques Derrida and John D. Caputo, whereas Marcel's figuring out of otherness affects the paintings of Paul Ricoeur and Richard Kearney.Ultimately, features of Alterity makes a case for a hermeneutic account of otherness. Otherness itself isn't really absolute, yet is a chiasm of alterity and similitude. safely articulated, such an account is able to addressing the valid moral and epistemological matters that lead thinkers to construe otherness in absolute phrases, yet with out absolutely the aporiasthat accompany the sort of characterization
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Extra info for Aspects of alterity : Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate
Therefore, responsibility can never be satisfied and the obligation to the other can never be fulfilled. On the level of the individual encounter, Levinas claims that our responsibility to the other, when taken to its limit as an infinite responsibility that cannot be fulfilled, becomes substitution. To be oneself, otherwise than being, to be dis-interested, is to bear the wretchedness and bankruptcy of the other, and even the responsibility that the other can have for me. 81 It is because responsibility increases in proportion to the recognition and assumption of this responsibility as mine that responsibility expands to the point of substitution.
To kill is not to dominate but to annihilate; it is to renounce comprehension absolutely. ’’63 Murder is a power over the other that is simultaneously the admission of powerlessness over the other. My inability to comprehend the other, coupled with the possibility of murdering him, gives rise to the ethical resistance to my powers—the resistance of non-resistance. ’’ Thus, the absolute alterity revealed in the face of the other person calls into question the exercise of my freedom, both in terms of the naı¨ve exercise of freedom in jouissance and in terms of the temptation to murder.
Such an encounter announces the possibility that I am not the center of the world. The unanticipated appearance of the other is anything but a priori, and thus, perhaps, is a Ptolemaic counterrevolution against Kant’s Copernican revolution. The other critiques me insofar as he makes me aware that my freedom is not autarchic but arbitrary, and in so doing the other calls me to justify myself. Ontology, however, in its desire to protect and promote its freedom, does not stop at the stage of the critical encounter with the other, but takes a further step that reduces the other to the same precisely in order to avoid this critique and assure its freedom.