Advanced SQL Database Programmer Handbook by Burleson D.K., Celko J., Cook J.P.

By Burleson D.K., Celko J., Cook J.P.

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As a result, we made a lot of mistakes then and have to live with them now. The biggest mistakes come from exposing the physical representation of the logical model to the programmer. This is a holdover from the early programming language while we were very close to the hardware. For example, the fields in a COBOL or FORTRAN program were assumed to be physically located in the order in which they were declared. This meant that you could define a template that overlaid the same physical space and read the representation in several different ways.

But why specifically are The Big Three working on UNION ALL? UNION ALL views are important because they work with range partitioning. That is, with a sophisticated DBMS, you can split one large table into n smaller tables, based on a formula. But what will you do when you want to work on all the tables at once again, treating them as a single table for a query? Use a UNION ALL view: CREATEVIEW View1 AS SELECT a FROM Partition1 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM Partition2 SELECT a FROM View1 UPDATE View1 SET a = 5 DELETE FROM View1 WHERE a = 5 INSERT INTO View1 VALUES (5) Since View1 brings the partitions together, the SELECT can operate on the conceptual "one big table".

Give me a date, say 2000-01-01, you are not giving me a point; you are identifying an interval of 24 hours. Give me the date and time 2000-01-01 00:00:00 and you are giving me an interval of 60 seconds. It never stops!! The decision in SQL was to view time as a series of open ended intervals. That is, the segment includes the starting point in time, but never gets to the end point of the interval. This has some nice properties. It prevents you from counting the end of one event and the start of another event as identical moments in time.

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