Abu Hanifah. His Life, Legal Method & Legacy by Mohammed Akram Nadwi

By Mohammed Akram Nadwi

Abu Hanifah Nu'man ibn Thabit used to be one of many maximum pioneers within the background of Islamic legislation, really in felony reasoning. The Hanafi felony university that he based has develop into the main greatly one of the world's Muslims. in response to basic assets, this examine of the lifestyles and legacy of Abu Hanifah additionally surveys the evolution of Hanafi felony reasoning (fiqh) in several areas of the Islamic international and assesses its historic distinctiveness.

Mohammed Akram Nadwi is a study fellow on the Oxford Centre for Islamic reviews, and is the writer of numerous works together with al-Muhaddithat: the ladies students in Islam (2007).

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Initially, the Sunnah meant the way the Prophet understood and lived the Qurān, which the Companions had learnt from his teaching them. When they heard words from him, they knew – as everyone knows when they hear speech directly, from the context of the occasion, from the tone of voice, from an array of non-verbal signals – how to distinguish command from counsel, the more important from the less important, the essential and universal from the contingent and local. By the mid first century AH many of the Companions had died; by the end of that century so too had most of their students, the Successors.

Many of the close disciples (Companions) of the Prophet achieved this degree of secure faith, the acceptance that his way embodied the Qurān in the practical form most suited to it. The Qurān was given to the Prophet by his hearing it; with it came the explicit command not to hasten his tongue in the utterance of it, nor to be anxious about remembering it: God promises to prepare his heart for it, to preserve it fully, and to guarantee its exposition (al-Qiyāmah, 75. 16–19). Hearing (unlike sight) involves a direct presence of the message in the listener’s body, which prompts, in the first instance, an adjustment to that sound.

According to Arab custom, the strangers needed to establish an alliance with one of the local tribes. For that reason, we assume that Zūṭā may have allied himself with the Banī Taymullāh, a strong clan settled in Kufah. This kind of alliance in Arabic is referred to as wilā, from which is derived the word mawlā, which can mean ‘slave’ as well as ‘freedman’ or ‘ally’. The word mawlā may have given rise to the notion that Zūṭā had been a slave, which Ismāīl, Abū Ḥanīfah’s grandson, found it necessary to clarify by rejecting that his family had ever been enslaved.

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