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A Companion to Analytic Philosophy by A. P. Martinich, E. David Sosa

By A. P. Martinich, E. David Sosa

A better half to Analytic Philosophy is a accomplished advisor to many major analytic philosophers and ideas of the final hundred years.

  • Provides a entire advisor to a few of the most vital analytic philosophers of the final 100 years.
  • Offers transparent and vast research of profound strategies similar to fact, goodness, wisdom, and sweetness.
  • Written by means of probably the most amazing philosophers alive, a few of whom have entries within the ebook dedicated to them.

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What are the “logical atoms”? They are atomic facts. The reference here to “facts” is due to his abandonment by 1914 of his earlier Moorean conception of propositions. He has now adopted a form of the correspondence theory of truth according to which the truth of a proposition, now conceived of as normally a linguistic structure (though Russell also allows for imagistic mental propositions), is grounded in the perfect correspondence of logically simple propositions with atomic facts. I shall explain his reasons for this change of mind concerning propositions below, but since facts are said to be composed of the things that are the meanings of the words occurring in the proposition, it turns out that atomic facts differ little from old-style true elementary propositions, the propositions whose 37 THOMAS BALDWIN truth formed the basis for the truth of propositions whose expression involves incomplete symbols (see “Lectures on the Philosophy of Logical Atomism,” Papers, 8: 175).

Whitehead, and he was, therefore, confronted by the need to avoid the perplexing contradiction he had discovered in 1901. His first thought was that the conception of an incomplete symbol he had developed in connection with the theory of descriptions could be put to work to show what was wrong with the paradoxical set R of things that are not members of themselves. Russell developed this thought in an ingenious way by interpreting talk of sets in terms of the results of substitutions within propositions and then showed that, under this interpretation, the condition of self-membership cannot be coherently expressed.

For Frege this argument simply gets off on the wrong foot. The thought expressed by “the author of Waverley is the author of Marmion” is indeed a thought about identity; but the thought itself is not structured by the relation of identity, but by the sense employed here of this relation, and this sense can then relate the senses expressed by the two descriptions without turning it into a thought that these senses are the same. Russell’s argument against the meaning/denotation distinction as applied to descriptions only works insofar as it depends on a non-Fregean hybrid conception of a proposition which violates Frege’s distinction between Sinn and Bedeutung.

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