A Brief History Of Saudi Arabia (Brief History) by James Wynbrandt

By James Wynbrandt

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The submission is to Allah, the supreme being; an adherent refers to him or herself as a Muslim, or one who submits to the will of God. The word Islam comes from salam, which means peace. Despite the military campaigns that fostered its spread, the teachings of the Quran were fairly liberal for the time and were interpreted and practiced with great tolerance. Rather than deny the validity of other monotheistic religions of the time (Christianity and Judaism), Islam built upon them. Muhammad accepted Abraham and Moses as prophets of God, and he placed Jesus in the same position: a chosen messenger rather than a divine being.

Meanwhile, Jewish tribes prospered with their control over most of the trade routes passing through the town. The most powerful of the Jewish tribes were the Banu Qurayza, Banu Nadir, and Banu Quynuqa. Seeking to end their conflict with the Aws, representatives of the Khazraj met with Muhammad in 621 to ask for his assistance as an arbitrator. It was common practice in Arabian communities to bring in a respected outsider to resolve otherwise intractable problems. Muhammad explained that as Muslims, their tribal affiliations would be moot, because they would all be one community.

106. Rabbel had made a pact with the Romans: as long as they did not attack during his lifetime, they could have the kingdom after his death. The Romans renamed it Arabia Petraea, or “rocky Arabia,” and redesigned the city of Petra with traditional Roman architecture. Between Arabia Petraea in the north and Arabia Felix in the south lay the vast expanse of Arabia Deserta. A period of peace and prosperity followed during the Pax Romana. With this annexation of the kingdom, direct Roman contact with the nomads increased.

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