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  • Scholastic Encyclopedia Of Women

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    Biel’s psychology was, like Ockham’s, close to Augustinianism: the powers of the soul are not distinct faculties; intellect is the soul understanding, will is the soul desiring and loving. The relationship between inclination and reason, accounting for the apprehension of the natu- The middle of the twelfth century also saw the systematization of the canon law. To say that S’s evidence must rule out these alternatives to p is not to say anything about what S does or does not know, or about what S does or does not believe.
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  • Macmillan Illustrated Encyclopedia Set Macmillan Library

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    A concern for the focus of rela- tivization gives the value-concept a bite on a person; it ensures that the value-concept carries weight for that per- son. Furthermore, in all apperception a personifying element is at work in that the apperceived objects are colored by the mode of the apperceiving subject. As a matter of convenience, certain further restrictions are imposed on the character of the machine, but these are of such a nature as obviously to cause no loss of generality—in particular, a human calculator, provided with pencil and paper and explicit instructions, can be regarded as a kind of Turing machine. cations of the incompleteness theorems, not in their original formulation, but in a “much more satisfactory form” that is “due to the work of various mathematicians.” He stresses, “The greatest improvement was made possible through the precise definition of the concept of finite procedure, which plays such a decisive role in these results” (Gödel’s Collected Works III, p. 304).
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  • Child's A-Z Encyclopedia

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    Leucippus explicitly stated that “nothing happens at random, but everything for a reason and by necessity” (Fr. 2), and throughout their cosmology the atomists not only excluded purpose or design but also assumed that every event is the product of a definite, theoretically determinable cause. Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. In contrast, in contexts where the epistemic standards are more demanding, and thus where farther out possible worlds become relevant, it will now no longer be the case that one will tend to know either of these propositions.
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  • Children's Encyclopedia (Internet-Linked Reference Books)

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    The first of the two Soviet contributions of the 1930s was Timofei S. Virtually all Tibetan Buddhist schools consider themselves to be Madhyamikas, followers of Nagarjuna’s tradition in one form or another and the Dge-lugspas are no exceptions in this regard. No doubt, this is why personhood strategies have dominated the pro-choice philosophical literature. He was always proud—rather defiantly so—of his Catholicism and his Latinity, despite the fact that he was not a believer and was not notably attached to Spain or to Spanish culture.
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  • Kingfisher First Encyclopedia.

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    By contrast, even objects as fanciful as a billiard ball that transforms itself into wedding cake on being struck, though never present to the senses, are still objects of one’s thought, and so too perceptions. All instances of the Barcan formula (BF) are valid in all and only frames satisfying the condition of decreasing domains, that is, for all u and v, if (u, v) ʦ R then Eu ʖ Ev. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Battigalli, Pierpaolo, and Giacomo Bonanno. “Recent Results on Belief, Knowledge, and the Epistemic Foundations of Game Theory.” Research in Economics 503 (1999): 149–226.
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  • Bubblefacts World Wonders (Bubblefacts S.)

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    For Butterfield, the mistake lay in (a) taking the identities of manifold points between mod- els as an unproblematic given and hence (b) defining indeterminism in too direct and unsubtle a fashion. Spinoza did not draw this conclu- sion, but it is implicit in his development of Descartes. Gettier, Edmund. “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” Analysis 23 (1963): 121–123. As regards Price, what is to be understood by an act of preferring as opposed to an emotion of preference?
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  • The Oxford Children's A to Z of World Religions

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    Green was as emphatic in his political as in his ethical theory that rights cannot be created out of nothing, in the way Thomas Hobbes and Benedict Spin- oza supposed. The main lines of Clarke’s argument are as follows. During the Second World War, Berlin worked for the British government in the United States, after which he returned to teaching at Oxford University, with occasional sojourns in London and the United States. Landraümig; Sebastian Franck, ein Wanderer an Donau, Rhein und Neckar.
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  • My Big I Wonder Why... Book

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    Translated into English by John Richardson as Religion within the Sphere of Naked Reason (in ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 31 KANT, IMMANUEL Essays and Treatises, London, 1798), by J. He saw no contradiction in asserting the hermetic nature of poetry while claiming that the heroic virtues of the new regime would be more propitious for its creation. In particular, during the 1960s there emerged the possible worlds semantics for modal logic, whereby an interpretation to a logic provides a set of possible worlds, and each wff of the formal language has a truth value in each of these worlds.
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  • People on Earth: The World in Infographics

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    De re belief attributions provide a focus for the debates among Russellians, Fregeans, and others. Its bringer is a messenger from the world of Light who penetrates the barriers of the spheres, outwits the archons, awakens the spirit from its earthly slumber, and imparts to it the saving knowledge from without. In metaphysics, Aureol adopts Duns Scotus’s view that the concept of being is univocal between God and creatures and between substance and accident, but he modifies it to avoid some of the problems he sees with Duns Scotus’s ideas.
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  • Here's More Tell Me Why

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    As was said at the beginning of this entry, the doctrine of historical materialism arose out of an earlier metaphysi- comoral view in which scientific objectivity played no part. During this period he also entered into a correspon- dence with a Dutch merchant and would-be philosopher, Willem van Blijenbergh, who had read his exposition of Descartes and had many questions for the author. If the universe is not eternal, then, it could not be a metaphysically necessary being.