• Encyclopedias
  • They Were First at Home

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    Still others have argued that Epicurus’s account is nonreductive or emergentist in a way that defuses the randomizing effects of atomic indeterminism at the macroscopic level. Formal systems of recursive number theory, in which generality is expressed by free variables and existence by the actual presentation of an instance or (if the object depends on parameters) a function, will accord with this conception if the functions admitted are sufficiently elementary—for example, primitive recursive functions.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Animals: A Visual Encyclopedia

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    Venn differs from Mill chiefly in setting greater store by laws of coexistence than by laws of causal succession. Thus we can talk meaningfully about triangles without having any idea of a triangle in mind. New York: Macmillan, 1893; 2nd ed., New York: Macmillan, 1901. “Die Prinzipien der Logik.” In Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, by Wilhelm Windelband and Arnold Ruge. This finally gained general acceptance when Heinrich Hertz generated electromagnetic waves by electrical means and showed that they had all the properties of light except that they were of much lower frequency, a result of the conditions of generation.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Reptile (Eyewitness Guides)

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    What Aristotle meant by tà «n §ênai is the subject of disagreement among translators and commentators. The fullest statement of Reich’s views on religion is found in Chapters 6 and 7 of Massenpsychologie des Faschismus (Copenhagen: Verlag für Sexualpolitik, 1933), third edition translated by T. It is often distinguished from “second-order” or “metaethical” doubts, such as those raised by Mackie (1977) and Harman (1977), which are supposed neither to be based on, nor to imply anything, about the prospects of “internal” ethical argument.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Encyclopedia of World Geography (Usborne Geography

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    Blake (1978), 1:82 Regicide, in Mencius, 2:232 Regimented language, 8:218–219 Régis, Pierre Sylvain, 8:299–300 Cartesianism of, 2:56 Desgabets and, 2:759 on God, 5:666–667 Malebranche and, 2:61, 5:665–666 Tschirnhaus and, 9:549 Regius, Henricus (Henry de Roy), 8:301 Descartes and, 2:55, 2:754 empiricism of, 2:55 on mind-body problem, 2:750 Regnum Animale (Swedenborg), 9:336 Regress in classical foundationalism, 2:275 of justification, terminating, 5:92 of justified modal beliefs, 5:80 in resemblance theory, 9:601 Zabarella on, 9:867 Regress-generating property, 9:584 Regularities of convention, in meaning, 6:84 Regularity (Humean) view of laws of nature, 5:225–231 Regularity theory, Köhler criticized by defenders of, 5:132 Regularity view, of causation, 7:276 Rehabilitation, 8:165–167 Rehmke, Johannes, 8:302–304 Reich, Wilhelm, 7:523, 8:304–316 Reichenbach, Hans, 8:318–322 on common cause principle, 2:342, 8:686 on conventionalism of space, 2:521–522 on direction of time, 7:542 emotive theory and, 3:425 on empirical methodology, 8:170, 8:693 on explanation, 3:524 on force, 3:235 interpretations of, 8:321–322 life of, 8:318–319 and Markov condition, 8:687 on measurement, 8:170 on paradigmatic inductive situation, 4:643 in probability theory, 8:32 Putnam and, 8:170 Salmon and, 8:593 on straight rule of inductive inferences, 8:594 on temporal entropy, 9:469 on temporal metric, 9:494 on time, 7:566 entropy and, 9:469 measurement of, 9:494 tenseless theory of, 9:475 Reid, Thomas, 8:322–329 on active judgment in aesthetic process, 4:65 Alison and, 1:128–129 on causation, 3:18 common-sense theory of, 2:356 intuition in, 3:409 Stewart on, 9:246–247 on conscience, 3:409 and Cousin, 2:579 and crisis of skepticism, 9:56 on deliberation, 3:18 on determinism, 3:15, 3:17, 3:18, 3:19 on epistemology of testimony, 9:402 on ether theories, 8:700 on fictional objects, existence of, 3:494–495 on force and consciousness, 3:689 Gerard and, 4:64 on Hume, 3:305–306, 9:248 on ideas, 3:494–495 Lehrer and, 5:248 Mansel and, 5:687 Martineau and, 5:726 on memory, 6:125 on motive, 3:19, 3:20 particularism of, 3:278 on personal identity, 4:612, 7:230 Royer-Collard and, 8:523–524 Sciacca on, 8:666 Shepherd on, 9:10 Sidgwick and, 9:23 skepticism of, 9:56 on testimony, 7:357 on virtue and vice, 9:247 Reidentification criteria for, 7:221–223, 7:226 vs. individuation, 7:213–214 processes of, 7:213, 7:215 Reification, in classical Indian philosophy, 6:470 Reign of Terror, 9:395 Reikon ichigenron (Monism of the soul) (Nishi), 6:623 Reimarus, Elise, Pantheismusstreit and, 7:100 Reimarus, Hermann Samuel, 8:330–331 deism and, 2:688 Lessing and, 5:295 Reinach, Adolf in phenomenology, 7:279 Stein and, 9:239 Reincarnation, 8:331–333 in Buddhism, 1:723, 2:111, 6:255–256 cause of, 6:620 Empedocles on, 3:210, 3:212 and evil, problem of, 3:476 and immortality, 4:617 in Indian philosophy, 5:326–327 Jainism on, 2:111, 5:327 karma and, 2:110, 2:111, 5:41 materialism and, 6:14 McTaggart on, 6:77 nirvaña and, 6:620–621 in Orphism, 7:43 parapsychology and, 7:113–116 personal identity and, 7:229–230 Plotinus on, 7:634 See also Rebirth Reiner, Hans ethics, 3:422–423 on life, meaning and value of, 5:354–355 Reinforcement, 9:61, 9:62 Reinhard, A.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Britannica Student Encyclopedia c2007 (16 vol.) (Ready, Set,

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    The new physics pioneered in the seventeenth century by Galileo Galilei, Descartes, and Isaac Newton holds that we can explain the nature and behavior of physical objects only insofar as we can describe them in mathematical terms. He died in 1674, survived by his third wife. approach and method nation of the Son and the Holy Spirit to the Father. These nine works were thought of as dealing with nine distinct branches of logic, each based on its own canonical text.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Dinosaurs

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    The kind-nature, in the account of Avicenna, is supposed to be the subject of both individuality (as existent in particular substances) and of universality (as existent in the mind). That is to say, it is a deliberate proposal concerning the use of a term in the language, but the proposal is not simply a stipulation, for it has some antecedent basis in the usage in question. In 1818, Hegel was appointed professor at the University of Berlin, where he became famous and influential.
  • Encyclopedias
  • The Blackbirch Encyclopedia of Science & Invention Volume 1.

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    Why should one be egocentric and not in conformity with rationality?” Lu’s main idea is that since each one has a mind and reason is inherent in mind, mind is reason. This is not to say, however, that there are no cases in which there would not be a significant difference between hedonistic and ideal utilitarianism. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 555 COSMOLOGY From the two premises it follows logically that the universe has a cause.
  • Encyclopedias
  • My Little Encyclopedia

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    The exclusion theory and the attendant problem of infinite regress may leave several questions unasked, but Buddhists seem satisfied with its use, perhaps because it so greatly simplifies the theory of inference. The most important of his voluminous writings are De Principiis, a treatise on first principles and the earliest extant Christian systematic theology; the treatise On Prayer; and Contra Celsum. The work of metaethical noncognitivists such as Charles Stevenson (1908–1979) and Alfred Jules Ayer (1910–1989) especially influenced the development of contemporary philosophical debate over the respective roles of sentiment and reason in morals.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Blackbirch Visual Encyclopedias - People of the World

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    Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number Russo, C. Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie. 10th ed. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidgel, (1983): 283–310. Unfortunately, the Sixth Cahier was never published. This distinction is essential to Stirner’s doctrine. But let t be the expansion of s got by adding infinitely many new constant symbols c0, c1, … and let T' be the theory consisting of all the sentences (ci π cj) where i < j.
  • Encyclopedias
  • Collins School Dictionary

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    He had a clear conception of a philosophy of mathematics and physics as an independent discipline, and anticipated the modern distinction between a theory and a metatheory. To lend credence to this thesis, Ehrlich provides a variety of categorical axiomatizations of ˙ making use of novel continuity axioms (that are equivalent to any of the familiar continuity axioms) with axioms for Archimedean ordered fields (or Archimedean real-closed ordered fields) and shows that by simply deleting the Archimedean axiom one obtains categorical axiomatizations of No (Ehrlich 1992, theorems 1, 4, and 6).